According to at least one expert, there are three main things each of us can do to help our sugar woods remain healthy: (1) identify and remove invasive plant species, (2) ensure an ideal suite of tree species, and (3) protect riparian buffers and other critter habitat by leaving waterfronts wooded and woods “messy.” Let’s take those three in turn.
The first step to removal, of course, is identification. The Nature Conservancy has prepared handy information sheets on buckthorn, honeysuckle, and barberry that you can use to distinguish these harmful plants from native flora. Whether you make color copies of these sheets or bring a device into the woods for reference, it’s also a great idea to sketch a map of your plot and/or bring some marking tape with you to mark the location of invasive species for future reference. For a more detailed plan, see our previous post on how to identify these invasive plants in your sugar woods. More tips for identification can be found here as well.
After you’ve identified your invasive species, it’s time for removal. It is best to remove invasive plants from the ground in their entirety – roots and all – as long as the infestation covers a modest surface area. (Root removal of infestations that cover a large surface area can leave bare ground ripe for other invasive plants to take root. Such removal on steep slopes can lead to soil erosion.) For mature plants, however, cutting and covering with black plastic or a double layer of burlap is a respectable, next-best method. When pulling, it is important to get the entire root system as these plants propagate from the roots. Complete covering of all above-ground parts of the plant is necessary for the same reason. Either way, pause to pat yourself on the back for punctuality! Early detection and removal is key to controlling invasive plants.
What should you do with the invasive plants once you’ve removed them? First of all, think twice about bringing the invasive plants off site – in Vermont, for example, it is actually illegal to do so unless you really know what you are doing. Also note that home-composting invasive plants can result in more infestations if not done according to certain best practices. Bagging your invasive plants and bringing them to the dump is a good option of last-resort. But destroying these woody weeds in a bonfire is probably fine, and you also have the option of simply hanging the invasive plants on a tree by its roots on site to dry and die. For more on invasive species removal, read our previous post about our experience weeding our sugar woods.
Ensuring an Ideal Suite of Tree Species
Every kind of woods has an ideal suite of tree species that helps the ecosystem thrive. When you are a forester, you sweat the details. But homeowners can make an impact simply by focusing on variability. To begin, walk in your woods and catalog all of the species of trees you find there – including the understory (young trees). If what you find there is reasonably diverse – say around eight species – that’s great. You can care for your woods by just not cutting all or most of any single species. If what you find is not monocultural (sugar maple only) but is non-diverse (only a few species of trees) consider planting or clearing around an already-existing oak or two. Oaks are great companion plants in northern hardwood forest; they are great habitat for moths, butterflies and song birds and provide a food source for bear, turkey and deer. They are also projected to do well in a warming climate. If you do have a sugar maple monoculture, planting hemlocks and red maples can help diminish the virulence of tent caterpillar invasions. Just take a couple of hours to look around, find out how diverse your woods are, and act accordingly. You can read about our experience cataloging our own sugar woods here.
Protecting Riparian Buffers and Other Habitats
While the first two steps in caring for your sugar woods are active, the last is passive. You can protect or create the potential for diversity for other species, including wildlife, by leaving standing dead trees (called “snags”), leaving dead logs on the ground, and, where bodies of water exist, ensuring that riparian buffers (forested area providing shade) are in place. Leaving waterfronts wooded and woods “messy” is enough. If you have an exceedingly neat woods already, don’t be afraid to leave a few brush piles in the forest to encourage critters to come, stay and contribute to the balance.